12-PANEL – Marijuana, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Opiates/Morphine, Phencyclidine, Meth-Amphetamine, Benzodiazepine, Barbiturate, Oxycodone & Methadone, Buprenorphine, Ecstasy
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Tetrahydrocannabinol – a.k.a., MARIJUANA – THC – CANNABINOIDS – POT
THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the primary active ingredient in cannabinoids (marijuana). This.is the component in marijuana that gets one “high.” When smoked or orally administered, it produces euphoric effects. Users have impaired short term memory and slowed learning. They may also experience transient episodes of confusion and anxiety.
Marijuana smoke, just like tobacco smoke, has been proven to cause lung cancer and other forms of cancer as well. Marijuana is also known as the “gateway drug”, leading many people to other harder and more addictive drugs down the road.
Short-term effects of marijuana use include problems with memory and learning; distorted perception; difficulty in thinking and problem-solving; loss of coordination; and increased heart rate, anxiety, and panic attacks.
Long term relatively heavy use may be associated with behavioral disorders. The peak effect of smoking marijuana occurs in 20-30 minutes and the duration is 90-120 minutes after one cigarette. Elevated levels of urinary metabolites are found within hours of exposure and remain detectable for 3-10 days after smoking. The main metabolite excreted in the urine is 11-nor-.9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (.9-THC-COOH).
Cocaine (COC), a.k.a.: Crack – Snow – Flake – Blow – Dust, etc.
Cocaine is a highly addictive drug that is processed from the naturally occurring cocoa plant. Users describe cocaine as giving them an ultimate rush, a feeling of power and invincibility Cocaine is a commonly abused drug around the entire world. Long term effects of cocaine usage include cardiovascular problems, extreme paranoia, and when snorted, can cause rupturing of the mucus membranes and can cause the nasal septum to collapse. The major ways of taking cocaine are sniffing or snorting, injecting, and smoking (including free-base and crack cocaine).
Cocaine is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and a local anesthetic. Initially, it brings about extreme energy and restlessness while gradually resulting in tremors, over-sensitivity and spasms. In large amounts, cocaine causes fever, unresponsiveness, and difficulty in breathing and unconsciousness.ont
Cocaine is often self-administered by nasal inhalation, intravenous injection and free-base smoking. It is excreted in the urine in a short time primarily as Benzoylecgonine1,2. Benzoylecgonine, a major metabolite of cocaine, has a longer biological half-life (5-8 hours) than cocaine (0.5-1.5 hours), and can generally be detected for 24-48 hours after cocaine exposure.
Amphetamine and related drugs such as methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine in the brain. The group includes prescription CNS drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to diminish the appetite and to control weight.
Brand names of the drugs that contain amphetamine include Adderall, Vyvanse, and Dexedrine. The drug is also used illegally as a recreational drug and as a performance enhancer. The name amphetamine is derived from its chemical name: alpha-methylphenethylamine. The name is also used to refer to the class of compounds derived from amphetamine, often referred to as the substituted amphetamines.
Recreational users of amphetamine have coined numerous nicknames for amphetamine, some of the more common street names for amphetamine include speed, crank, and whizz. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports the typical retail price of amphetamine in Europe varied between 10€ and 15€ a gram in half of the reporting countries.
Opiate (OPI)/Morphine (MOP)
Opiates are drugs that produce a rush of intense pleasure, followed by a sense of well-being and a calm, drowsy state. Opiates are processed from opium, a chemical which is derived from the naturally occurring chemical morphine, which is found in the poppy plant. Opiates include the drugs heroin, morphine and codeine. All of these drugs are highly addictive and cause many health problems. Long term effects of opiates include collapsed veins, cellulitis, heart failure and abnormal brain wave patterns. Opiates are among some of the leading common drugs of abuse today.
Opiate generally refers to any drug that is derived from the opium poppy, including the natural products, morphine and codeine, and the semi-synthetic drugs such as heroin. Opioid is more general, referring to any drug that acts on the opioid receptor.
Opioid analgesics comprise a large group of substances which control pain by depressing the central nervous system. Large dose of morphine can produce higher tolerance levels, physiological dependency in users, and may lead to substance abuse. Morphine is excreted unmetabolized, and is also the major metabolic product of codeine and heroin. Morphine is detectable in the urine for several days after an opiate dose.
Phencyclidine – PCP
PCP, technically known as Phencyclidine, is a hallucinogen that was first distributed as a surgical anesthetic in the 1950’s. However, it was soon removed from the market because people that had used it soon became delirious and experienced intense hallucinations. The effects of PCP range from mood swings, euphoria, hallucinations and self harming. It can be taken by inhalation, smoking, orally or intravenously. Not a common drug of abuse today, it is however still used frequently enough to need to be tested for.
Phencyclidine, also known as PCP or Angel Dust, is used in powder, capsule, and tablet form. The powder is either snorted or smoked after mixing it with marijuana or vegetable matter. Phencyclidine is most commonly administered by inhalation but can be used intravenously, intra-nasally, and orally. After low doses, the user thinks and acts swiftly and experiences mood swings from euphoria to depression. Self-injurious behavior is one of the devastating effects of Phencyclidine.
PCP can be found in urine within 4 to 6 hours after use and will remain in urine for 7 to 14 days, depending on factors such as metabolic rate, user’s age, weight, activity, and diet.5 Phencyclidine is excreted in the urine as an unchanged drug (4% to 19%) and conjugated metabolites (25% to 30%).
Metamphetamine – MET
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive street drug that is chemically similar to amphetamines.
Methamphetamine is manufactured in illegal laboratories across the world. It affects the central nervous system and gives the user a euphoric rush, making them feel literally as if they are on top of the world. Methamphetamine, in both its manufacturing and use is extremely dangerous and destroys thousands of people’s lives every day. Meth usage leads to many health problems and is one of the most highly abused drugs in the U.S. today.
Methamphetamine is an addictive stimulant drug that strongly activates certain systems in the brain. Methamphetamine is closely related chemically to amphetamine, but the central nervous system effects of Methamphetamine are greater. Methamphetamine is made in illegal laboratories and has a high potential for abuse and dependence. The drug can be taken orally, injected, or inhaled. Acute higher does lead to enhanced stimulation of the central nervous system and induce euphoria, alertness, reduced appetite, and a sense of increased energy and power. Cardiovascular responses to Methamphetamine include increased blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. More acute responses produce anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, psychotic behavior, and eventually, depression and exhaustion.
The effects of Methamphetamine generally last 2-4 hours and the drug have a half-life of 9-24 hours in the body. Methamphetamine is excreted in the urine primarily as amphetamine and oxidized and deaminated derivatives. However, 10-20% of Methamphetamine is excreted unchanged. Thus, the presence of the parent compound in the urine indicates Methamphetamine use. Methamphetamine is generally detectable in the urine for 3-5 days, depending on urine pH level.
Benzodiazepines – BZO
Benzodiazepines are medications that are frequently prescribed for symptomatic treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. They produce their effects via specific receptors involving a neurochemical called gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Because they are safer and more effective, Benzodiazepines have replaced barbiturates in the treatment of both anxiety and insomnia. Benzodiazepines are also used as sedatives before some surgical and medical procedures, and for the treatment of seizure disorders and alcohol withdrawal.
There is a risk of physical dependency, if Benzodiazepines are taken regularly (e.g., daily) for more than a few months, especially at higher than normal doses. Stopping abruptly can bring on such symptoms trouble sleeping, gastrointestinal upset, feeling unwell, loss of appetite, sweating and trembling, weakness, anxiety and changes in perception.
Only trace amounts (less than 1%) of most Benzodiazepines are excreted unaltered in urine; most of the concentration in urine is conjugated drug. The detection period for the Benzodiazepines in urine is 3 – 7 days.
Barbiturates – BAR
Barbiturates are drugs that depress the central nervous system. They are used for therapeutic applications for hypnotics, anticonvulsants and sedatives. This drug is taken orally as capsules or tablets. The effects resemble those of alcohol intoxication. Repeated use of barbiturates can lead to tolerance and physical dependency. Once a popular drug of abuse, barbiturates use has declined in recent years, due to doctors not prescribing the drug as often.
Short acting Barbiturates taken at 400mg/day for 2-3 months produces a clinically significant degree of physical dependence. Withdrawal symptoms experienced during periods of drug abstinence can be severe enough to cause death. Only a small amount (less than 5%) of most Barbiturates are excreted unaltered in urine.
Oxycodone – OXY
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with a structural similarity to codeine. The drug is manufactured by modifying thebaine, an alkaloid found in the opium poppy. Oxycodone, like all opiate agonists, provides pain relief by acting on opioid receptors in the spinal cord, brain, and possibly directly in the affected tissues. Oxycodone is prescribed for the relief of moderate to high pain under the well-known pharmaceutical trade names of OxyContin®, Tylox®, Percodan® and Percocet®. While Tylox, Percodan and Percocet contain only small doses of oxycodone hydrochloride combined with other analgesics such as acetaminophen or aspirin, OxyContin consists solely of oxycodone hydrochloride in a time-release form.
While classified as an Opiate, the chemical structure and metabolite of Oxycodone requires a separate Opiate test with a substantially higher sensitivity detection level than that of the standard Opiate drug test. Consequently, a positive test result will not only confirm Oxycodone but other opiates as well. In this regard the Oxycodone test is not Oxycodone specific but opiate specific being able to detect Oxycodone/opiate use at the higher sensitivity level required while the 2000 ng/ml sensitivity level of the standard opiate test would not detect Oxycodone.
Oxycodone is known to metabolize by demethylation into oxymorphone and noroxycodone. In a 24-hour urine, 33-61% of a single, 5mg oral dose is excreted with the primary constituents being unchanged drug (13-19%), conjugated drug (7-29%) and conjugated oxymorphone (13-14%)1. The window of detection for oxycodone in urine is expected to be similar to that of other opioids such as morphine.
Methadone – MTD
Methadone is a narcotic pain reliever for medium to severe pain. It is also used in the treatment of heroin (opiate dependence: Vicodin, Percocet, Morphine, etc.) addiction. Oral Methadone is very different than IV Methadone. Oral Methadone is partially stored in the liver for late use. IV Methadone acts more like heroin. In most states you must go to a pain clinic or a Methadone maintenance clinic to be prescribed Methadone.
Methadone is a long acting pain reliever producing effects that last from twelve to forth-eight hours. Ideally, Methadone frees the client from the pressures of obtaining illegal heroin, from the dangers of injection and from the emotional roller coaster that most opiates produce. Methadone, if taken for long periods and at large doses, can lead to a very long withdrawal period. The withdrawals from Methadone are more prolonged and troublesome than those provoked by heroin cessation, yet the substitution and phased removal of methadone is an acceptable method of detoxification for patients and therapists.
Buprenorphine – BUP
Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from thebaine and is often used to treat opioid addiction in the privacy of a physician’s office. Buprenorphine is an opioid partial agonist. This means that, although Buprenorphine is an opioid, and thus can produce typical opioid effects and side effects such as euphoria and respiratory depression, its maximal effects are less than those of full agonists like heroin and methadone. At low doses Buprenorphine produces sufficient agonist effect to enable opioid-addicted individuals to discontinue the misuse of opioids without experiencing withdrawal symptoms.
When you take an adequate amount of buprenorphine, it can provide positive drug testing results for around 24 to 60 hours. However, abuse of the drug and higher intake can cause enough of it to stay in the system that it may appear on drug tests for up to 7 to 10 days. These times vary depending on the amount taken and the user’s metabolism.
Ecstasy – MDMA
MDMA is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception (awareness of surrounding objects and conditions). It is chemically similar to both stimulants and hallucinogens, producing feelings of increased energy, pleasure, emotional warmth, and distorted sensory and time perception. MDMA was initially popular in the nightclub scene and at all-night dance parties (“raves”), but the drug now affects a broader range of people who more commonly call the drug Ecstasy or Molly.
The effects of Ecstasy last about 3 to 6 hours, although many users tend to take a second dose as the effects of the first dose begin to fade. Ecstasy can be detectable in urine samples for up to 2-4 days from the time of use.